Thinking Outside the Cell Defined Terms Baker's Dozen Problems Articles & Reports - Bibliography
Removal of Capital Punishment and Corporal Punishment from the Sentencing Acts around the middle of the last century has -
A. Cost a lot of Lives because Premeditated Murder, or Rape/Murder, is not effectively Deterred the way it once was;
B. Burnt the Public Purse searing all of us - $7,000,559 per inmate Sentenced to Life Without Parole;
C. Saturated more and more, larger and larger Prisons with more and more inmates;
D. Resulted in the Baker's Dozen Unsustainable Problems within the Australian Prison System; and
E. Sent a lot of Life Without Parole inmates, with no light at the end of the tunnel, mentally insane and attempting suicide - a curious phenomenon for people who think that Capital Punishment is inhumane
(i) Early Capital Punishment practices globally were frightening and brutal to send a clear message to the populous not to similarly transgress, because if you do, expect the same painful, drawn out death.
(ii) Capital Punishment is Sentenced in many of the largest countries, including two Commonwealth of Nations countries in South-East Asia, and also Japan that executed 15 convicted murderers in 2018.
(iii) Capital Punishment was Sentenced in Australia from 1790 to 1967. According to two historians at the Judicial Commission of NSW, more than 1,500 people were hanged in Australia between 1820 and 1900 when the population was much smaller.
(iv) Capital Punishment practiced in Australia until the mid-20th Century was swift, frightening and often painful - usually by hanging, dating back before the First Fleet until Ronald Ryan was the last convicted murderer hung in Victoria in 1967:
“Capital punishment had been part of the legal system of Australia since British settlement and during the 19th century, crimes that could carry a death sentence included burglary, sheep stealing, forgery, sexual assaults, murder and manslaughter, and there is one reported case of someone being executed for "being illegally at large". During the 19th century, these crimes saw about 80 people hanged each year throughout Australia”.
(v) The average number of hangings of convicted murderers in the final 30 years (between 1940 and 1969 inclusive) that the death penalty was Sentenced in Australia was 0.7 hangings each year (less than one hanging annually), albeit the national population was much smaller.
(i) Parent Punishing a Child in the Home' Philosophy has existed since time immemorial, whereby a child is punished by one of its parents quickly after it transgresses; such Punishment appears frightening and painful to the young child. Following punishment, rehabilitation commences immediately and is achieved as quickly as possible.
(ii) The same philosophy applied to Judicial Corporal Punishment for Adults in Australia until the mid 1940s and is still applied in three adjacent members of the Commonwealth of Nations in South-East Asia.
(iii) Countries that strictly observe Islamic law inflict both amputation and whipping as penalties.
A. Removal Of Capital Punishment has Cost a lot of Lives because premeditated murder, or rape/murder, is not effectively Deterred the way it once was
Australian Institute of Criminology chronicles 7,699 reported murders over the 27 years to June 2016.
Capital Punishment Deters Homicides - ask Keith Goodbun or learn what Plea Bargains are.
Empirical Evidence Quantifies Persons Charged With Murder On Remand Plead Guilty To Avoid Being Sentenced To Death.
Puzzlingly, Justice for the Innocent Victim/s is not a consideration when Sentencing criminals convicted of Sadistic, Brutal, Premeditated, Unprovoked Murder/s.
B. Removal Of Capital Punishment and Corporal Punishment has Burnt the Public Purse searing us all - $7,000,559 per inmate Sentenced to Life Without Parole
Material Prisoner Costs Borne by the Public Purse notes that the average cost per inmate serving a Sentence of Life Without Parole (based on the average annual cost of Maximum Security Incarceration in 2019) across 76 Heinous Murderers that murdered 200 Australians (profiled in Section B) over the last 35 years is $7,000,559 per inmate. The total cost of Maximum Security Incarceration across these 76 Heinous Murderers will be a smidgeon over half a billion Australian dollars. Yet as at 30 June 2019, 2,088 inmates were serving a Sentence of '20 years and over', 'Life Sentence' or 'Other', that includes 1,790 that have been convicted of Murder. The strain on the Public Purse to incarcerate nearly all of these 76 Heinous Murderers until they die in a prison cell is merely the tip of the iceberg beneath.
Annual expenditure on the Justice Sector was $18.431b in 2018-19 of which $4.416 billion was expended on Corrective Services in 2017-18 - a real increase of 35% from five years earlier in 2012-13.
As forecast/predicted in the final Section of Thinking Outside the Cell Discussion Paper, discouraging criminal activity through more frightening and less palatable Punishments, will have a patent flow-on effect to not only annual expenditure on Corrective Services, but also Police Services and the Criminal Courts.
C. Removal Of Capital Punishment and Corporal Punishment has saturated more and more, larger and larger Prisons with more and more inmates
First World Countries sole reliance on Prison Incarceration to Punish and Deter in the pursuit of Law and Order has been the greatest Societal Blunder of the 20th Century - both in Dollars Wasted and Results Underachieved.
Prison Data - Australia and List of prisons in Australia evidence that the vast majority of prisons were established way back in the 19th Century. However, they were holding cells until Capital Punishment or Corporal Punishment was dispensed. www.prisonstudies.org/country/australia provides the below Table that shows the Australian 'Prisons population' well nigh doubled in the initial 18 years of the 21st Century necessitating the construction of mega prisons. In the case of NSW, at Bathurst Correctional Centre, Cessnock Correctional Centre, Goulburn Correctional Centre, Junee Jail, Silverwater Metropolitan Remand, South Coast Correctional Centre, Wellington Correctional Centre as elucidated in The Booming Industry continued: Australian Prisons a 2017 update. The rate of inmates across the broad size range of these prisons increased from 114 in 2000 to 172 in 2018 - a 50.87% increase in occupancy levels:
D. Removal Of Capital Punishment and Corporal Punishment has resulted in the Baker's Dozen Unsustainable Problems within the Australian Prison System
E. Removal Of Capital Punishment and Corporal Punishment has sent a lot of Life Without Parole inmates, with no light at the end of the tunnel, mentally insane and have attempted suicide. A strange phenomenon for people that think that Capital Punishment is inhumane
Lifers' deemed never to be released are dying a thousand deaths; experiencing a manic depressive QOL.
Capital Punishment is more humane and civilised than Life without parole.
Manic Depression Identified In Medical Reports/Journals/Articles provides several articles and reports on the mental health of inmates facing longer prison Sentences.