Whacko Recidivism/re-offending rates across Australia
54.9% of prisoners released from Australia's prisons in 2016-17, returned to corrective services within the two years to 2018–19. This includes people who returned to prison, as well as people who were subsequently placed on community orders.
53.1 per cent of released prisoners had returned to corrective services within two years of being released from jail in 2020-21 (either prison or community corrections). Returns to prison and corrective services were higher in all states and territories for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander than non-Indigenous people.
In Victoria, 44.2% of prisoners released during 2017–18 returned to prison within two years (to 2019–20). This rate is comparable to the Australian rate of 46.0%. The Northern Territory had the highest rate at 60.8%, and South Australia had the lowest rate at 34.8%.
Below are two extracts from the Sentencing Advisory Council's paper titled Does Imprisonment Deter? A Review of the Evidence dated April 2011:
deterrent effect. However, the research also indicates that increases in the severity of penalties, such as increasing the length of terms of imprisonment, do not produce a corresponding increase in deterrence.
Research intospecific deterrence shows that imprisonment has, at best, no effect on the rate of reoffending and often results in a greater rate of recidivism."
"The research shows that imprisonment has, at best, no effect on the rate of reoffending and is often criminogenic, resulting in a greater rate of recidivism by imprisoned offenders compared with offenders who received a different sentencing outcome."
Over 50% of inmates released from The University Of Crime at Australia's state and territory prisons, return to prison within 2½ years, largely due to the loss of life sustaining skills that inmates are often confronted by upon release from a highly institutionalised environment, namely “institutionalised personality traits”, including “distrusting others, difficulty engaging in relationships [and] hampered decision-making”.
Call for a complete rethink as prison population, recidivism explode - SMH - Rachel Olding - Feb 2016 includes:
NSW's recidivism rate is the worst of any state. About 48 per cent of inmates leaving prison will be back within two years, up nearly 1 percentage point for every financial year since 2011. Only the NT has a worse record.”
A. Australia spends an estimated $16 billion a year on our criminal justice system (police services, courts and correctional services/prisons).
B. 36,000 inmates in Australia's prisons, up 39 per cent from a decade ago - the prison system costs the Australian taxpayer $4 billion annually.
C. Australia's $4 billion annual prison system has created a "class of persistent criminals":
(i) 58 percent of prisoners have been imprisoned before (stable over the past 10 years)
(ii) 44.6 percent of prisoners released during 2013-14 returned to prison within two years (up from 39.5 percent five years ago)
(iii) 52.6 percent of prisoners released during 2013-14 returned to corrective services within two year
Below is an extract of Table C.5 of Report on Government Services 2017 - Volume C: Justice which evidences that -
* 50.7% of inmates in NSW; and
* 58.3% of inmates in N.T,
released in 2013-14 had returned to prison within two years.
Below is an extract of Table CA.4 of Report on Government Services 2018 - CA Justice Sector Overview - attachment which evidences that -
* 51.3% of inmates in NSW; and
* 57.1% of inmates in N.T,
released in 2014-15 had returned to prison within two years.
Two recent BBC Future articles provide compelling evidence that long-term incarceration is counterproductive to cost-effective Rehabilitation, but rather institutionalises inmates contributing to Recidivism
Predictors of recidivism in Australian juvenile sex offenders: Implications for treatment - Dianna T. Kenny, Timothy Keogh and Katie Seidler - Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment - , 2001, 13, 2, 131-148